8.6. Space-time


8.6.1. Directions


All of the direction words in Japanese are nouns, while the English words up and down are not nouns.

(u)(e)
ue
up, upper
(hi)(da)(ri)
hidari
left
(mi)(gi)
migi
right
(si)(ta)
sita
down, lower



(ma)(e)   (u)(si)(ro)
mae usiro
forward backward



(ki)(ta)
kita
north
(ni)(si)
nisi
west
(hi)(ga)(si)
higasi
east
(mi)(na)(mi)
minami
south


8.6.2. Temporal nouns


I have written that every noun in a Japanese sentence is marked by a postposition, but temporal nouns, which stand for time relative to now, are the exceptions. You don't have to add a postposition when you use them as an adverb. It is the same as in English, because you don't use any preposition for the temporal nouns such as yesterday and today.

OffsetDayYear
-2
(o)(to)(to)(i)
ototoi
the day before yesterday
(o)(to)(to)(si)
ototosi
the year before last
-1
(ki)(no)(u)
ki
yesterday
(ki)(small yo)(ne)(n)
kyonen
last year
0
(ki)(small yo)(u)
kyô
today
(ko)(to)(si)
kotosi
this year
+1
(a)(si)(ta)
asita
tomorrow
(ra)(i)(ne)(n)
rainen
next year
+2
(a)(sa)(small tu)(te)
asatte
the day after tomorrow
(sa)(ra)(i)(ne)(n)
sarainen
the year after next
+3
(si)(a)(sa)(small tu)(te)
siasatte
three days later
-

Note: The noun (to)(si) "tosi" means year. The prefix (ra)(i) "rai" means coming.


OffsetMonthWeek
-2
(se)(n)(se)(n)(ge)(tu)
sensengetu
the month before last
(se)(n)(se)(n)(si)(small yu)(u)
sensensyû
the week before last
-1
(se)(n)(ge)(tu)
sengetu
last month
(se)(n)(si)(small yu)(u)
sensyû
last week
0
(ko)(n)(ge)(tu)
kongetu
this month
(ko)(n)(si)(small yu)(u)
konsyû
this week
+1
(ra)(i)(ge)(tu)
raigetu
next month
(ra)(i)(si)(small yu)(u)
raisyû
next week
+2
(sa)(ra)(i)(ge)(tu)
saraigetu
the month after next
(sa)(ra)(i)(si)(small yu)(u)
saraisyû
the week after next

Note: The suffix (ge)(tu) "getu" means month, and the noun (si)(small yu)(u) "syû" means week. The prefix (se)(n) "sen" means previous. The prefix (ko)(n) "kon" means current.


Example:

Kana:(o)(to)(to)(i)  (te)(n)(pu)(ra)(wo)  (ta)(be)(ta)(period)
Romanization:Ototoitempuraotabeta.
Structure:adverb
(the day before
yesterday)
noun
(tempura)
accusative
marker
verb
(ate)
Meaning:I ate tempura the day before yesterday.

Kana:(ki)(no)(u)  (e)(i)(ga)(wo)  (mi)(ta)(period)
Romanization:Kieigaomita.
Structure:adverb
(yesterday)
noun
(movie)
accusative
marker
verb
(saw)
Meaning:I saw a movie yesterday.

In both of the sentences, temporal nouns work as adverbs.


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